“Friedeburg” (Captain Kopper).
(Left Hamburg, Germany—19/05/1872 arriving at Lytlleton, N.Z.—30/08/1872)
“The Friedeburg sailed from Hamburg for Canterbury, on the 18th of May, with the following immigrants: —53 families, representing 198 souls; 33 single men and 61 single women. Total 292 souls—equal to 241 statute adults. The nationality of this shipment is classified as follows:—Germans, 175 souls—equal to 136 statute adults; Norwegians, 59 do—equal to 53½ do; Danes, 58 do —equal to 51½ do. The ship is expected about the latter end of the month, and an advertisement in another column notifies that applications for the immigrants will be received at the immigration office.” Lyttleton Times, 3 August 1872, p 2
“PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE. Dr Haast said that he had received a letter from one of the largest shipowners of Germany, stating that the immigrants who had left Hamburg by the Friedeburg for Canterbury were the best that had ever left that port; many of them had fought in the late war, and had received the decoration of the Iron Cross. The writer expressed his opinion that the shipment would prove to be the best immigrants yet received in the colony. The meeting then adjourned.” Press, 8 August 1872, p 3
“ARRIVAL OF THE GERMAN EMIGRANT SHIP FRIEDEBURG, FROM HAMBURG. The fine iron ship Friedeburg, Captain E. Kopper, was signalled on Friday afternoon, and came up io an anchor a few miles outside the Heads at 4 p.m., the wind being S.W. with an ebb tide. On Saturday morning the s.s. Gazelle having been chartered, left for the vessel, having on board R. J. S. Barman, Esq., Deputy Superintendent, Dr Donald, Health Officer; Captain Gibson, Dr Rouse, and Mr E. March, Commissioners; and Dr Haast, Mr Ruddenklau, and Mr Monson, who went down as interpreters. On arriving at the ship, which was then some three miles outside the Heads, the usual questions were asked, followed by the Health Officer going on board. He found there had been no sickness during the voyage, and the vessel was declared free. The tide being half flood, the steamer at once took the ship in tow. On making our way on board, the ship seemed to be like a small town, and it appeared to us that the vessel could not; accommodate the passengers; but on going below it was soon seen there was plenty of room. The emigrants are mostly Scandinavians and Poles, and about twelve German families; they comprise sixty-one single women, thirty-four single men, and the rest are married people and families. There have been six births during the voyage and one death, a child aged eleven months. On examining the ‘tween decks we found them unusually spacious, the height 8ft 6in from beam to floor; the cubic space thus set apart has insured proper ventilation, and thus made the health of the passengers remarkably .good. The single girls’ compartment is very large and roomy. The ship is one of a fleet of eighteen, owned by Messrs Sloman and Co., and was built by Messrs Stephens and Son, of Glasgow, especially for emigration purposes. The vessels have been employed for many years in American emigration. The passengers look remarkably well. Dr J. D. L’Temple is the surgeon superintendent, and it is to his great care and attention that such a satisfactory state of things has been attained, for we may add the whole of the ‘tween-decks were remarkably clean. The usual inspection was made by the commissioners, and the only complaint made was the water, which at one time was not good; but this was remedied. We would recommend that in future, ships with emigrants should be provided with a distilling apparatus. ‘Captain Koppel informs us that as soon as the emigrants are landed, he sails for Java, thence to Hamburg, to bring out another batch of immigrants. A large number of visitors paid the ship a visit yesterday. The emigrants will be landed today.
The Friedeburg sailed from Hamburg on May 21st, passed the Lizard on June 1st, and crossed the Line on June 23rd, but was detained by calms at Fernando Norunha for three days, got the S.E. trades from the S. by E., had to stay several times on the coast of Brazil until past the Ahruhas Shoals; passed the longitude of the Cape on July 21st in 45 deg. south, passed the Crozets on July 30th, and Tasmania August 19th; ran down castings in 48 deg. to 50 deg.; had light variable winds to sighting the Snares on August 26th; thence had variable winds, with fog and rain, which continued until sighting Banks’ Peninsula at nine a.m. August 30th, and anchored off Godley Heads at four p.m. same day, making a passage of ninety days.” Press, 2 September 1872, p 2
“IMMIGRANTS BY THE FRIEDEBURG. The first shipment of immigrants direct from Germany arrived in Port Lyttelton on Saturday last. The fine iron ship Friedcburg, Captain Kopper, mode the passage from Hamburg in 102 days, and it is very satisfactory to report that the immigrants have arrived at their destination in excellent health and spirits. The ship was signalled outside the heads on Friday afternoon, but the name of the vessel could not be ascertained until the following day. This fact suggests the urgent necessity that exists for the establishment of telegraphic communication between the Godley Head lighthouse, the signal station, and the telegraph office in Lyttelton. The expense would not be very great, in fact it would appear as trifling contrasted with the utility of the work. The lighthouse-keeper could soon be instructed in the art, so that the names of vessels could be telegraphed to Lyttelton and Christchurch immediately upon the signals being made out. His Honor the Deputy-Superintendent, Mr J. E. March (Chief Immigration Officer), Dr Haast, Mr Ruddenklau, and Mr Monson left Christchurch for Lyttelton by the half-past eight o’clock train. Messrs Ruddenklau and Monson proceeded to port in the capacity of interpreters—the former as between the Government officials and the German immigrants, and the latter as interpreter between the officials and the Danes and Norwegians. The party was Joined in Lyttelton by Drs Donald and House and Captain Gibson, who, together with Mr March, are the Immigration Commissioners for the province. The s.s. Gazelle, Capt McLellan, was chartered to take the party to the vessel. The Gazelle started about 10 o’clock, taking the Ben More in tow, but some delay was occasioned through the barque getting fast on a bank, which has formed a short distance from the wharf. As soon as she was got off, she was towed to the middle of the stream and left there, and the Gazelle proceeded to the ship, which was lying at anchor two miles outside the North Head. On approaching the vessel, the flag flying at the stern bespoke her country, and there was no longer any doubt as to her being the Freideburg. Drawing nearer the immigrants were mounted on the bulwarks of the ship anxiously awaiting our arrival, and the chorus of a cluster of single women on the poop settled the point as to their nationality. Seen from the deck of the Gazelle, the large group of immigrants presented a somewhat novel spectacle. Three or four nations were there represented—the Germanic, the Germanic Polish, the Norwegian, and the Danish, all chattering away in the language and dialects of their respective countries. Dr Donald, as Health Officer, was the first to go on board, and as all was well, the whole party followed shortly afterwards. The immigrants were in the very best of spirits, and spoke hopefully of the future in their adopted home. Unfortunately, not one of them could speak English, and they expressed a considerable amount of anxiety’ n consequence, but they were in a great measure consoled when told that there were several of their countrymen in the province, and that they would soon be able to pick up the language in a country where English was universally spoken. Among the immigrants there are some who have won decorations for services in the field. One has been in the Holstein, Austrian, and Franco German wars, and another in the two latter campaigns.
The usual official inspection by the Immigration Commissioners was commenced shortly after going on board. Beginning with the single women’s compartment, the muster roll was called over, and the girls were asked (through the interpreters) whether they had any complaints to make. Their general reply was that they had been well treated during the voyage. In the married couples’ compartment, every bead of a family was asked separately if he had anything to complain of. In the majority of cases the reply was a negative one, but there were a few who complained of the quality of the water and the insufficiency of diet served out to them. Dr Temple was asked to express his opinion with reference to the dietary scale, and he said he thought the quantities of some of the items were too small. Amongst the married couples, one immigrant was pointed out as having walked from the Russian frontier to Hamburg (a distance of about 800 miles) with his wife and five or six children, sleeping at farm houses and often times in the open air on their way to join the ship. It was a curious fact, that while those on one side of the vessel (Polish-Germans) complained about the insufficiency of food; those on the opposite side (Norwegians and Danes) expressed entire satisfaction. The former were asked how they could account for this, and their reply was that the latter were richer than themselves, and besides bringing more comforts with them, had money enough to enable them to procure what they wanted. The same thing, however, was noticeable in the single men’s compartment; here the Danes and Norwegians were perfectly satisfied with their treatment on board, while a few of the Germans and Polish-Germans complained of the quality of the water and the insufficiency of the dietary scale. The captain and doctor speak very highly of the conduct of the Norwegians and Danes and most of his own countrymen during the voyage from Hamburg, We were pleased to observe the cleanliness of the ship in every part, and it is doubtless owing to the care taken in this respect that the health of the passengers has been so successfully maintained.
Speaking of the immigrants as a whole, they are undoubtedly a very good selection, and if they follow the excellent advice given to them by the two interpreters, they will have no reason to regret coming to New Zealand. Their ignorance of English will doubtless be a considerable disadvantage to them for some time, but they wilt not be long in acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the language to enable them to get along comfortably with those by whom they may be employed. It is probable that many of them will find employment from their own countrymen.
The Friedeburg sailed from Hamburg on the 18th of May, having on board 292 persons, representing 241 adults. On the voyage out, there was one death—a child 11 months old—and six births, thus increasing the number of souls to 297. Of this number 200 are above 12 years old, 82 are between 1 and 12 years, and 15 under 1 year. There are 61 single women, 33 single men, 53 married couples, and 97 Children and infants, including the six born on the passage. With regard to nationalities, the numbers are as follows:—Germans (including Polish), 102 persons above 12 years, 68 children and 5 infants; Norwegians, 51 persons above 12 years, 5 children, and 3 infants; Danes, 47 persons above. 12 years, 9 children, and 2 infants. This total of 10 infants does not include those born since the sailing of the ship. The ship is admirably adapted for the conveyance of immigrants, and is superior in many respects to the vessels that come from London. The height between decks is 8ft and 8ft 6in, the ventilation is good, but there is an insufficiency of light in all the compartments. Captain Kopper has made one trip to Queensland in the Friedeburg with 300 immigrants, and he is highly spoken of by those who have now reached Canterbury under his charge. The surgeon-superintendent. Dr D L. Temple, who speaks German, very fluently and Danish moderately well, deserves to be complimented upon the healthy condition in which so many persons have readied their destination.
The immigrants will disembark at noon today, and will be conveyed by special train to Aldington. The Barracks will be open to employers on Thursday. We are informed that at the Immigration Barracks no fewer than 90 applications for domestic servants have been received. Mr March ahs remained on board the ship since Saturday, and will not leave until the disembarkation is completed. Messrs Ruddenklau and Morrison will act as interpreters during the stay of the immigrants at the Barracks.” Lyttleton Times, 2 September 1872, p 2
“The emigrants by the ship Friedeburg were landed yesterday at Lyttelton, and were conveyed to Christchurch by a special train, at 2.15 p.m.” Press, 3 September, p 2
“Immigration.—The immigrants by the Friedeburg disembarked yesterday. They were conveyed to Lyttelton from the ship by the s.s. Gazelle, Captain M’Lellan, the whole number being landed in two shipments. The disembarkation was superintended by Mr J. E. March; and Mr Monson acted as interpreter. A special train was in readiness, and the immigrants were conveyed to Addington without delay, arriving there in the afternoon. On arrival at the Barracks, the families, single women and single men were quartered in their respective compartments. Mr Brittan was in attendance from the Immigration Office, and as soon as he had called the rolls over, rations were served out to the immigrants in accordance with the regulation scale. They all seemed to be pleased with their new quarters, and expressed satisfaction alike at the quantity and quality of the rations. The Barracks were in splendid order for the reception of the immigrants, the whole of the premises being as clean as they could possibly be. Since our last visit to the Barracks, one of the dormitories in the single women’s compartment has been converted into an hospital. This is furnished with iron bedsteads and bedding, and as many as ten patients can be placed there at one time. At the upper end of the hospital dormitory there is a comfortable room set apart for the accommodation of the matrons who come out in charge of the single women. In the case of the Friedeburg, the single women were not accompanied by a matron, and we are at a loss to understand why an exception was made in this instance. It is at all times more advisable to have the single women on board an immigrant ship under the immediate control and supervision of one of their own sex. In accordance with the code of immigration regulations, the immigrants will devote to-day and to-morrow to washing and mending their clothes; and on Thursday the Barracks will he thrown open to employers. As we stated yesterday, a large number of applications have been received, and it is probable that all the single men and women will find situations. In the case of families, some little time will doubtless elapse before they all find employment, but until they succeed in obtaining work, and so long as they conduct themselves properly, they will be accommodated at the Barracks. Sergeant O’Connor is stationed at the Barracks, as usual on these occasions, and wall remain there for two or three days. Of the immigrants who arrived by the Merope a short time ago, there are five families still quartered at the Barracks, but it is probably that some of these, if not all, will hear of employment on Thursday.” Lyttleton Times, 3 September 1872, p 2
“Yesterday being the first day for engaging immigrants ex Friedeburg, the barracks were opened at ten o’clock, and a considerable number of the new arrivals were disposed of. Out of sixty-one single women forty-two were engaged, eleven of these going to Timaru. Twenty-three single men out of thirty-three found suitable employment, at fair rates of wages. Of the families, four were engaged, leaving forty-eight still for employment. Some of these will, no doubt, find situations in the course of a few days, and no difficulty is anticipated in placing the single men and single women at present remaining, in barracks. The following rates of wages were given to those engaged :—Married couples—Farm laborers, £40 to £45 per annum, and found; to receive a bonus of £10 if remaining twelve months. Blacksmiths and carpenters. £45, and found; to receive a bonus of £10 if remaining twelve months. Tailor, £52 per annum, and found. Single men — Ploughmen and good farm laborers, £30 to £40 per annum; laborers, £25, and found. Female servants —Cooks, £30; general servants, £20; housemaids, £20; nursemaids, £12 to £18. All those engaged seemed well satisfied with the rates of wages received, and all expressed themselves pleased with the treatment received since their arrival. Mr Ruddenklau, president of the German Association, acted as interpreter on behalf of his countrymen, and Mr Monson and Peter Christiansen, an immigrant per ship England, interpreter for the Danes and Norwegians.” Press, 6 September 1872, p 2
“THE SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS. —The Customary three days from the time of landing having expired, the immigration barracks were thrown open yesterday for the engagement of the recent arrivals by the German Friedeburg. There was a large; attendant of employers, and the barracks wore a very busy aspect from the hour of opening to the close. The proceedings were also of a somewhat more animated character than, usual, owing to the extra talking which had to be done in consequence of all business negotiations being through interpreters. The gentlemen who acted in this capacity for the immigrants were; Mr Ruddenklau (German) and Mr Monson (Norwegian and Danish: All the immigrants appeared very contented in disposition, and expressed themselves perfectly, satisfied with the treatment they had received since landing; and the rate of wages offered; Of sixty-one single woman, 42 met with engagements, the wages being—cooks, £3O; general servants and housemaids, £2O; nursemaids, £12 to £18. Eleven of the 42 were engaged to go to Timaru, and it may be stated that nearly all the 42 were engaged by English employers. .Of 33 single men, 23 were engaged, the wages being—general farm servants, £3O to £4O; labourers, £25 to £30; and one tailor, £52. There were 53 families, and four of these were engaged, the rates of pay being—blacksmith, £45; carpenter, £45; farm labourers; £40 to £46, with a bonus of £1O in each instance if those engaged remained 12 months in their situations. Of course it will be understood that in every instance given above the wages are exclusive of board and lodging. It is very probable that several of the immigrants remaining, at the barracks will be engaged in a few days, and it should be stated that more of the single women would have been engaged yesterday had time permitted for the negotiations to be completed.
DINNER. —Last night the German residents of Christchurch and its vicinity gave a complimentary dinner at Schmidt’s Hotel to their countryman Captain Kopper of the; ship Friedeburg, in which the Scandinavian immigrants recently arrived. The room was. decorated with national flags, conspicuous amongst which was a German banner presented by Captain Kopper to the Germans of this province. The dinner was served in very excellent style by Mr Schmidt, and the tables were ornamented by a’ number of pot plants (including a Norway – spruce), lent for the occasion by Mr W. Wilson. Notwithstanding that no public notification had been made of the dinner upwards of fifty Germans assembled. The chair was occupied by Dr Haast, F.R.S., Ph. D., who was supported on the right by Captain Kopper, on his left by Dr Temple, the surgeon superintendent of the Friedeburg on the passage out. The vicechairs were occupied by Mr Ruddenklau and Mr Fuhrmann. After the removal of the cloth, the list of toasts was proceeded with in the conventional mariner. .The chairman in an eloquent speech proposed “The Queen and the Royal Family, referring to at length to their connection by blood with Germany, and stating that Germans ever received the most favourable consideration from English rulers. The toast was drunk with great enthusiasm. “The Emperor of Germany’’ was next proposed by Dr Haast, who in the course of his remarks said that the unity of Germany had made it one of the greatest nations in the world. The toast was honoured with the most patriotic warmth. General and Provincial Governments of the colony were also toasted in a befitting manner, after which the chairman submitted the toast of the evening—“Capt. Kopper.” The toast was drunk with demonstrative applause and Capt. Kopper in responding thanked the Germans of the province for the warm reception he had met with on all hands since, he landed. His commented briefly upon the immigrants he had brought out in the Friedeburg, and said the most useful of the lot were the married couples of true German extraction, than whom better labourers were not to be found in the colonies. Dr Haast then sung “The Little Tambour,” and acquitted himself with, such consummate skill that an encore was persistently demanded. In agreeing to comply. with this wish of the guests, he said, however, that he must send round a plate to collect money, for any necessitous countrymen just arrived, and would only sing again on the. understanding that the appeal was received in a liberal spirit. He complied with the encore, and a plate was then sent, round, when the sum of £5 8s 6d was collected. The health of Dr Temple was then drunk, and this gentleman, in replying, also expressed the high opinion he held on the true German people whom he hoped would find a proper recognition of their in the colony. The chairman then proposed “Success to the Immigrants,” which was responded to for the Germans by Mr H. Hiller, a passenger by the Friedeburg, who, it may be stated, has been through all three campaigns in which the German army has of late years been engaged, and for the Scandinavians, by Mr Monson. “The Chairman’’ was proposed by Mr Ruddenklau, and was drunk with enthiusiasm. The chairman then proposed the health of Mr Ruddenklau, as the originator of the German Association in Christchurch, and this was also warmly received. “Success to Canterbury,” proposed by Dr Temple, was responded to by Mr Ruddenklau, and several other toasts followed, the intervals being filled in with German songs, many of which, especially those sung by Dr Haast, were very ably rendered. Mr F. Weber presided at the pianoforte during the evening.” Lyttleton Times, 6 September 1872, p 2
“Telegrams. The Immigration Barracks have been opened for the engagement of the Scandinavians. The following engagements were effected yesterday:—42 single women out of 61; 23 single men out of 33; 4 families out of 53. A dinner was given by German settlers to Captain Kopper, of the Friedeburg.” Otago Daily Times, 9 September 1872, p 2.
“The batch of Scandinavian immigrants ex the ship Friedeburg, lately arrived at Lyttelton, have nearly all readily, found employment among the Canterbury settlers at fair rates of wages — single women, £15 to £20 per annum; married couples, £45, with a promised bonus of £10 if remaining twelve months with first employers; single men, £25 to £30 with rations ; railway laborers, 7s, per day. The services of an interpreter was needed to negotiate the hiring.” Nelson Evening Mail, 21 September 1872, p 2
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Pobόg-Jaworowski J. W., History of the Polish Settlers in New Zealand, Warsaw, 1990, p 21.
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