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SURNAMES & THEIR ORIGINS
ANYS/ANIS possibly from German first name Hans or equvalent Jan or from son of Annis (Eng), the popular pronunciation of Agnes. Meaning: Pure/chaste.
BRZOSKOWSKI (Pol) brzoza. Meaning: birch tree, also seen in many habitation names.
ALBA/HALBA is a very old Polish name, which originated some 800 years ago. Meaning: helmet.
OSSOWSKI (Pol) Habitation names such as; Osow, Osowa, Osowo, Ossowo.
Jan Karol Halba (b. 1834–d. 1914) was born at Stanisławie on 17 February 1834, the son of Jakob Alba (b. 1791–d. 1847) and Anna Gędzierska (b. abt. 1797–d. 1852). Jan married on 13 November 1859 at the Church of the Holy Trinity in Lubiszewo-Tczewskie to Brigitta Brzoskowska (b. 27 December 1839 at Dąbrówka-Tczewska–d. 1920), the daughter of Jozef Brzoskowski (b. abt. 1790–d. 1863) and Helena Ossowska (b. 1796–d. 1873). During the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), Jan was conscripted into the army. He was later known to fly the Prussian Regimental Banner once a year on his property in New Zealand and was presented with the Regimental Emblem as a tribute indicating that he fought with distinction and courage. Jan in Poland worked as a farm labourer and Brigitta was reputed to be a governess, which indicated a reasonable education. Being unable to have children of their own, Jan and Brigitta raised their nephew Jozef Walenty Anis (b. 1863 at Lisewo Malborskie–d. 1938), as their very own. He was the son of Dawid Anis (b. abt. 1834–d. 1896) and Rozalia Brzoskowska (b. 1830–d. 1876), having had ten children and at least six infant deaths. They left Trczińsk for Hamburg where they set sail aboard the Palmerston on 29 Jul 1872, arriving at Port Chalmers near Dunedin on 6 December 1872.
Listed aboard were: Johann C. Halba age 39, Johanna 30 and Joseph 9. The family were sent south to Scroggs Creek on contract work with Brogden and Sons to lay the southern railway through the Taieri. By mid-March, 1873, they were living in Gull Street, Waihola where John purchased their property later the next year. Here he built the family a small but abiding sod brick hut (still standing). It had a mud floor, no windows, one door and measured four by two point five metres in size and was about three metres high at the peak. Bridget brought out with her from Poland a brass pestle and mortar, which has been handed down through the family. She was regarded as having a very frugal streak to her nature but leading the pioneer lady’s usual hard life.
Peter Brzoskowski, brother-in-law from Liebschau (Lubiszewo Tczewskie), writes to John Carl Halba of Waihoa replying that they had received his letter and the twenty pounds they needed to help them get to New Zealand. Unfortunately the ships were no longer going to New Zealand but diverted to Queensland in Australia instead. The journey that used to be 11 Thalers per person had just inflated to 111 Thalers per person. At the time, 20 pounds was equivalent to 133 Thaler and ten silver groszy.
Envelope: My address is Peter Brzoszkowski in Liebschau by Rukosin
Dear Uncle and Auntie I beg you for your quick answer. Dirschau (Tczew) 20th of June, 1876.
Dearest Brother-in-Law, We received your dear letter together with the money and we thank you for it several times. May Dear God give you a lot of luck and blessings in the foreign country and keep your children in good health,
Dear Brother-in-Law, with the twenty-pound sterling I went to the English bank in Danzig (Gdańsk) and I had to leave the cheque there for which I was given a receipt. We had to wait for the money for six weeks but we did not pay anything for the exchange transaction. Local agents wanted to charge us twenty gulden for arranging the exchange. We received your letter on the 10th of May. The cheque for 20 pounds was first forwarded to London where it was verified. However, the delay did not matter, as we received for it the full equivalent amount of 133 thaler and ten silver groszy. From the above amount I kept for myself 50 thaler and gave the remaining 83 thaler and ten silver groszy to Dusienski.
Dear Brother-in-Law, quite a lot has changed with our plans to emigrate to New Zealand. Ships with emigrants are not departing to New Zealand any more, they are now sailing to Queensland in Australia, but we do not wish to go there. We wrote to the agent and he replied that he can arrange the passage to New Zealand but this will cost us 111 thaler for each person and we do not have so much money to pay. Should we wish to travel to New Zealand at the old price of eleven thaler per person then the English Government will post us to work in the forest and we will be unable to live with you in the same place. Should we be able to pay the full costs of the passage, only then we will be able to join you. Johan Behrend wrote to his family and they could travel to him. Those people who left in October and November all wrote that they work in the forest and that they are not together with their relatives. Both brothers Drozdowski from Liebschau (Lubsizewo Tczewskie) departed in November for New Zealand and now work also in the forest. The wife of the younger Drozdowski died after six weeks in New Zealand. This news made us very sad. Growski from Dirschau (Tczew) also departed to New Zealand. I have given him your address as he wanted to be with you, has he arrived?
Dear Brother-in-Law, we are very sad that at present we are unable to travel to New Zealand, especially as I have sold all my belongings. What shall I do now, when no more immigrant ships sail with the low passage fare Dusienski has not sold his belongings. I had to leave my room, because it was discovered that I had plans to emigrate to New Zealand. Now I have to share a room with two other persons.
Dear Brother-in-Law, we do not wish that you work yourself to death and be left without any money. This will happen should you post money to us all the time. However, should you be able in a year or two to pay for us fully paid passage tickets, then we will be sure that we will be able to join you as we wish to do.
This letter was translated by Mr. George Jaworowski, with the following comments; Written in German possibly as given sentence by sentence by a Pole. The phraseology is very Polish and the writer probably had a limited knowledge of German. Letter is courtesy of Alan Halba.
“WASTE LANDS BOARD. Mr Charles Hilgendorf, on behalf of the undermentioned persons, applied that they should be allowed to purchase the respective areas held by them at Waihola under license from the late Provincial Government, under section 29 of the Land Act, 1872: — Johann Halba, sections 4 and 5, block XIX. It was explained that the applicants were Polish immigrants. It was resolved to recommend the Government to allow applicants to purchase at £3 per acre.” Bruce Herald, 9 August 1878, p 6
“MAGISTERIAL. R. M. COURT, MILTON. (Before J. K Wood, Esq., R.M.) Tuesday, February 12, 1884. The following persons were fined for permitting their cattle to stray on the public road at Waihola. —John Helber, 1 cow, 2s 6d, and costs.”Bruce Herald, 15 February 1884, p 3
“Two men who had met with accidents were received into the Hospital yesterday, and treated by Dr Garland. One was Joseph Walker, of Kurow, who was kicked by a horse on the leg, and received a severe wound. The other was a man named Halba, who had three of his toes crushed by a railway track passing over them while at work on the Livingstone railway. It is not expected that the toes will require to be amputated.” North Otago Times, 12 March 1886, p 2
After the railway work on the Taieri was completed, John took a horse and sledge into the hills behind Waihola and cut manuka to sell or barter with. He was also employed as a labourer and tried his hand at farming. According to the 1882’ Return of Freeholders, John owned 21 acres to the value of £150 at Waihola.
“R.M. COURT, MILTON. (Before W. H. Revell, Esq, R.M.) Wednesday. 13 th March, John Halba v. August Orlowski. Claim, £10, damages for removing oats. Mr Stewart for plaintiff, and Mr Reid for defendant. Mr Stewart stated that plaintiff purchased from C Hilgendorf certain sections at Waihola, in which was growing a crop of oats. Hilgendorf had before this purchased from Mr Kilgour. When the oats were ripe, defendant entered on the land, cut and removed the crop. Plaintiff, in his evidence, stated the area sown as 1 acre 3 roods, and thought it would throw 40 bushels per acre, and that defendant removed the crop. In cross-examination, he stated that defendant had been in possession of the ground about three years. Mrs Orlowski had sown the crop when defendant was in the hospital. He purchased the land long after the crop was sown. For the defence, Mr Reid said his client had occupied under Mr Kilgour for three years. There was no writing, but a verbal agreement was made in the presence of two witnesses by Mr Kilgour. It was to the effect that defendant could have the use of the ground for three years certain; and if Mr Kilgour did not want the property then, defendant could occupy same until it was required, and that he should have the first offer of purchase. The consideration for the agreement was that defendant should pay the rates and securely fence the land. The fencing had cost £20, and the rates had been regularly paid. Before the expiration of the term, defendant’s sister called on Mr Kilgour to know if he would sell, but he declined. Mr Smith had also written twice to know if he would sell on the expiration of the three years, and received word back that the land would not be sold. On the strength of that, and relying on the previous agreement, defendant ploughed the land and sowed the crop. Before it ripened, plaintiff stated that he had purchased. Defendant then wrote to Mr Kilgour, but received no reply. Under these circumstances counsel contended that his client was entitled to the fruits of his labor, and cited authority in support. Defendant and three witnesses gave evidence, and his Worship nonsuited plaintiff, with costs 17s, witnesses’ expenses 27s, and professional costs 21s.” Bruce Herald, 15 March 1889, p 3
“FOR SALE, Four-roomed HOUSE, Barn, and four-stalled Stable, Coal shed, Fowl house, &c. Three Acres of Ground – one sown in Grass. Orchard, comprising 100 Fruit Trees (Apples, Pears, Plums, and Cherries, &c.) and 100 Gooseberry and Currant Bushes. Fences in good order. Situated in Waihola Township. 14my JOHN C. HALBA.”, Otago Witness, 14 May 1896
John, a farmer at Waihola, was naturalised as a New Zealand citizen on 10 October 1893.
“Milton Magistrate’s Court. (Before Mr R. S. Hawkins, S. M.) Monday, February, 13 1899. Old Age Pensions… John Carl Halba, Waihola, disallowed, having property over the value…” Bruce Herald, 14 February 1899, p 5
John died at his residence in Waihola on 19 May 1914 aged 80 and Bridget, who preferred to live almost in isolation, died on 7 December 1920 aged 80 at her son’s residence at Circle Hill. They are buried at the Waihola Cemetery.
Józef (Joe) Walenty Halba (Anis), was born at Lisewo Malborskie on 19 August 1863. Joseph was sent to school for a short period until he was 12 years old. In 1875 he worked alongside his uncle John learning the art of plate-laying. He worked in both Islands for the New Zealand Railway. Joseph married on 30 December 1891 at St. Mary’s church in Milton to Teresa Augusta Barra (b. 1863 at Gniszewo–d. 1939), the daughter of Peter Albrecht Barra and Eleonora Wilhelmina Maas. For a brief time, Joseph worked with other Poles from Waihola on the tram lines in Melbourne in the early 1890s. The family were: John (b. 1893–d. 1893), Rosalie Theresa (b. 1895–d. 1933), John Peter (b. 1901–d. 1942), Theresa Josephine (b. 1902–d. 1977), Joseph Francis (b. 1906–d. 1966) and Leonora Bridget (b. 1907–d. 1949). For a time, they lived at Waihola, Taihape, Lawrence, Circle Hill and finally settled down in Milton. After farming at Circle Hill, Joseph worked for the Milburn Lime and Cement Company until health forced him to retire. Alan Halba recalls his grandfather, Joe Valentine, always kept a tin matchbox full of gold nuggets on his person. It was known he would clamber into his boat and row across the Waihola lake in the Berwick direction. Many followed him, but not a soul ever spotted him. He would stay away a couple of nights then reappear at home – matchbox full once more. Often the chasers would return home just to find Joe at home watching them, often wet and hungry. They lost their sense of humour very quickly and in time many gave up following him. Joseph died on 11 February 1938 at Milton and is buried with his wife at the Fairfax Cemetery.
“The hand of death fell suddenly on Mr Joseph Valentine Halba at his residence, Spenser Street, Milton, on Friday evening. He had just finished his evening meal and was going outside when he collapsed at the back door from a severe heart attack. He was carried inside, and attempts were made to revive him. He rallied slightly, but passed away shortly before the arrival of medical assistance. No inquest is necessary, a certificate being forthcoming.” Bruce Herald, 4 Februrary 1938
“Mr Joseph Valentine Halba, who passed away with tragic suddenness at his residence, Spenser Street, last Friday evening, was born in Liepshau, Germany, in August 1863, so that he was in his 75th year at the time of his demise. At the age of 11 years, he emigrated with his parents to New Zealand, in the sailing vessel Palmerston, landing at Port Chalmers and settling at Waihola. At 12 years he was learning plate laying with his father, and assisted in laying the railway between Christchurch and Bluff for the New Zealand Government. Later he was foreman for about three years of a section on the North Island Main Trunk railway, and he then assisted in laying the Catlins line. In 1893 he married Teresa Barra, of North Branch, the wedding being solemnised at Milton. Shortly before he was due to retire on superannuation he purchased a farming property in Circle Hill district, relinquishing this after about seven years to reside in Milton. He worked at the Milburn Lime and Cement Company’s works at Milburn until about two years ago, when an operation forced him to retire from active labours. He never took any part in outside affairs, being content with his home life. His widow and four members of the family of five are left to mourn the loss of a devoted father. The members of the family are John and Joseph, Misses Teresa and Nora, all resident in Milton. Another daughter, Rosalie (Mrs J. Wilson), died about five years ago.” Bruce Herald, 17 February 1938
Theresa died at Balclutha Hospital on 4 December 1939 aged 76 and is buried at the Fairfax Cemetery near Milton.
Pobόg-Jaworowski, J. W, History of the Polish Settlers in New Zealand, ed. Warsaw; Chz “Ars Polonia.” 1990, p 22, 32, 33, 43, 168 & 198.
Archives New Zealand, Passenger Lists, 1839-1973, FamilySearch.
Archives New Zealand Te Rua Mahara O Te Kawanatanga; Land Records.
Catholic Diocese of Dunedin, St Mary’s Church, Milton; Baptism Register.
Fairfax Cemetery Records, Dunedin Public Library.
Halba Alan, Timaru, provided photos, information & genealogy.
Konczewice, Lubiszewo Tczewskie, Miłobądz & Subkowy Parish Records, Pelplin Diocese, Poland.
New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs Naturalisations, Births, Deaths and Marriages.
New Zealand Government Property Tax Department, from the rates assessment rolls, Return of Freeholders of New Zealand 1882, published 1884.
Compiled by Paul Klemick (2022)
The Polish Heritage of Otago & Southland Charitable Trust
Chairperson ..... Ewa Rozecka-Pollard
Phone ......+64 3 477 5552
Secretary ..... Anna McCreath Munro
Phone ..... +64 3 464 0053
facebook ..... Poles Down South
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Poles in New Zealand We would like to hear from Poles or people with any Polish connection, who visited New Zealand and particularly those of you who paid a visit or lived anywhere in Otago or Southland.
Polski “Poles Down South” jest stroną internetową organizacji polonijnej w Nowej Zelandii działającej w rejonie Otago i Southland na Wyspie Południowej. Siedzibą organizacji jest Dunedin.